Over the past few years, the Common Core standards have been hailed and reviled. But do these standards merit such passion? For great schools—with rigorous curricula, collaborative educators, and supportive administrators—state standards make little difference. For schools that need to improve, the Common Core standards offer some useful guidance—but it takes far more than standards to provide a sound education.
What really matters is how the standards are interpreted and implemented. Amidst the cacophony of voices weighing in, I found three level-headed pieces this week.
One courtesy of Shutterstock.
Let’s start with what just might be the Common Core’s biggest bugaboo: close reading. It’s the perfect example of a pedagogical strategy that can be useful if used occasionally to focus students’ attention, and harmful if taken to extremes. Daniel Willingham of the University of Virginia (and Core Knowledge’s board) weighed in to remind us that reading without drawing on prior knowledge is not possible—nor is comprehension without sufficient knowledge:
Writers count on their audience to bring knowledge to bear on the text…. Things get [tricky] when it’s not plain to the reader that he lacks information that is important to understanding the text. Researchers Eli Gottlieb and Sam Wineburg offered a wonderful example…. They asked Clergy, scientists, and historians to read George Washington’s Thanksgiving Proclamation of 1789. Clergy and scientists focused on Washington’s invoking the “providence of Almighty God,” and other religious phrasing, with clergy applauding the Christian tone, and scientists upset by it. Historians, in contrast, focused on what the document did not say; it did not mention Jesus, nor salvation, nor Christianity. They saw the document as Washington’s self-conscious attempt to craft a statement that would be acceptable to the diversity of religions practiced in the United States.
Willingham concludes that attending to language and word choices and rereading make sense. But if students lack the knowledge needed to fill the inevitable gaps in language, then the text alone will not foster learning. (For yet more sage advice on close reading, see this post by Harvard’s Catherine E. Snow.)
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Next up is a brief report on exactly the kind of Common Core implementation I’d love to see all over the country: teachers working together, using the standards as a guide to create a more rigorous, knowledge-building curriculum. Last week, Robert Pondiscio (who is now at the Fordham Institute) had the pleasure of visiting Washoe County, Nevada, where Aaron Grossman is leading the homegrown Core Task Project. Obviously impressed, Pondiscio writes:
Those who see Common Core as a curricular monoculture, a boondoggle for publishers, or a violation of local control would do well to come to Reno. They’re doing it all without enriching an army of publishers or consultants—and with regional flair. Like children everywhere under Common Core, Reno kids will be expected to cite evidence in their reading and writing. But unlike anywhere else, they’ll be doing so by studying Nevada mining, conflict, and compromise among native tribes in Northern Nevada, and Nevada statehood and the state’s role in the Civil War—Common Core units developed by the Core Task Project. “We’re able to explain to the electorate that everything we’re doing is in-house, matched to our community values and to things we think are important,” Grossman observes.
Among the many resources the Washoe teachers are drawing on is Core Knowledge Language Arts. By thoughtfully crafting their curriculum, they have found that they have plenty of time for both the broad knowledge all students need and the knowledge of Nevada that they cherish.
Three courtesy of Shutterstock.
Lastly, in a wide-ranging podcast, Linda Darling-Hammond of Stanford offers sound advice on how the Common Core (or any college- and career-focused standards) can improve teacher and student learning. She also highlights research on assessments and suggestions for more productive accountability policies.